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Moscow, Russia Climate Change Impacts & Trends

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Moscow, Russia Climate Change

Russia is experiencing climate change at a rate 2.5 times faster than the global average. The impacts of climate change are widespread and far-reaching, with Moscow bearing witness to a range of changes that are reshaping the city’s environment, economy, and society.

Record-breaking temperatures, forest fires, flash floods, and thawing permafrost are just a few of the climate-related events that Moscow has been grappling with in recent years. These changes have serious implications for the city and the entire country, requiring urgent attention and action.

Key Takeaways:

  • Russia is experiencing climate change at a rate 2.5 times faster than the global average.
  • Moscow has seen a decrease in snow coverage and increasing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Extreme weather events, such as forest fires and flash floods, have become more frequent.
  • Thawing permafrost poses risks to infrastructure, including roads and pipelines.
  • Climate change impacts agriculture, food security, and biodiversity in Moscow.

Warming Temperatures and Extreme Weather Events

In 2020, regions across Russia experienced the hottest temperatures on record, contributing to forest fires and increased carbon dioxide emissions. The effects of global warming have become particularly visible in Moscow, with changing weather patterns and an increase in extreme weather events.

Flash floods in Siberia destroyed villages and displaced residents, highlighting the vulnerability of communities to the impacts of climate change. These floods are the result of heavy rainfall events that overwhelm the natural drainage systems. Such extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and intense in Russia.

The city of Moscow has also seen significant changes in its weather patterns. Winters have become milder, with a decrease in snow coverage and shorter durations of sub-zero temperatures. This has direct implications for the economy, as it affects industries like winter tourism and outdoor activities.

The decrease in Arctic sea ice is another striking consequence of global warming and its impact on Moscow. In recent years, the extent of Arctic sea ice has reached its second-lowest extent in over four decades, disrupting the delicate balance of the region and affecting ecosystems.

The warming temperatures and unpredictable weather patterns present a clear sign of the climate crisis in Moscow, Russia.

Thawing Permafrost and Infrastructure Risks

Nearly two-thirds of Russian territory is covered by permafrost, which is rapidly thawing. This thawing permafrost is leading to increased freeze-thaw cycles that are damaging urban infrastructure and posing a risk to oil and gas pipelines, roads, and rail lines. Thawing permafrost has also been linked to environmental disasters such as the spill of 21,000 tons of diesel fuel in the Ambarnaya river. If permafrost continues to thaw at its current rate, it could release large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming.

To understand the potential risks and impacts of thawing permafrost, it is important to grasp the extent of permafrost coverage in Russia. The following table provides an overview of permafrost distribution across various regions:

Region Percentage of Area with Permafrost
Central Siberian Plateau 98%
Yakutsk 95%
Chukotka Peninsula 90%
Kamchatka Peninsula 70%

The table illustrates that permafrost is widespread in Russia, making thawing permafrost a significant concern. As the permafrost thaws, it creates instability in the ground, leading to subsidence and damage to infrastructure. For example, roads and buildings built on permafrost can sink and develop cracks, causing structural issues.

The infrastructure risks associated with thawing permafrost also extend to the energy sector. Oil and gas pipelines, which are vital components of Russia’s economy, are at risk of damage due to ground movement caused by thawing permafrost.

Thawing permafrost poses a serious threat to the stability and resilience of Russia’s infrastructure. Without proactive measures to adapt to these changes, we risk significant economic losses and further exacerbating climate change.

Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

Climate change is having significant effects on Russia’s agricultural sector, particularly in the southern regions. These impacts pose serious challenges to food security and have global implications, given Russia’s status as a major exporter of wheat.

The changing climate is leading to more frequent droughts and alterations in precipitation patterns, which are reducing arable land and threatening wheat crops. As a result, farmers are facing lower yields and decreased productivity. This not only affects the livelihoods of those in the agricultural industry but also has the potential to disrupt global food markets.

Impacts on Arable Land and Wheat Crops

In Russia’s southern regions, droughts are becoming more common due to climate change. This dry spell is resulting in a reduction of available water for irrigation, ultimately decreasing arable land suitable for cultivation. As the arable land diminishes, the capacity for crop production, including wheat, is severely impacted. Wheat shortages can have far-reaching consequences for food security, as this staple crop is a vital source of nutrition for people around the world.

Furthermore, changes in precipitation patterns, such as irregular rainfall and more intense downpours, further exacerbate the challenges faced by farmers. Flooding from heavier rainfalls can damage crops and cause soil erosion, undermining agricultural productivity. These unpredictable weather events make it difficult for farmers to plan and manage their crops effectively.

Regional Contrasts and Soil Quality

While some northern latitudes may experience slight increases in arable land due to melting permafrost, the soil quality in these areas is less fertile compared to the south. The cultivation of carbon-rich soils in the north can also contribute to further global warming through the release of stored carbon dioxide. This underscores the complexity of balancing food production with climate change mitigation efforts.

“Climate change poses a significant risk to Russia’s agricultural sector and food security. The challenges of increasing droughts, erratic rainfall, and changes in arable land threaten the country’s ability to meet domestic demands and fulfill its role as a major wheat exporter.”

Table: Impacts on Russian Agriculture and Food Security

Impacts Consequences
Reduction in arable land Decreased crop production, lower yields, and food shortages
Threats to wheat crops Lower wheat production, potential disruptions in global food markets
Inconsistent rainfall Crop damage, soil erosion, and decreased agricultural productivity
Soil quality disparity Less fertile soil in northern latitudes, challenging food production

food security Russia

Climate change’s impact on Russian agriculture and food security necessitates the development of adaptive strategies and sustainable agricultural practices. Implementing measures to improve water management, promote crop diversification, and invest in research for resilient crop varieties can help mitigate the risks faced by farmers. Collaboration between government, communities, and international organizations is crucial in building a more climate-resilient agricultural sector and ensuring food security for Russia and the world.

Economic Consequences and Energy Transition

Climate change has significant economic impacts on Russia, particularly due to its heavy reliance on hydrocarbon production. As global demand shifts towards low-carbon energy sources, Russia’s economy faces the risk of being left behind. The transition to renewable energy is crucial to mitigate climate change and ensure long-term energy security.

The consequences of climate change, such as droughts, floods, and permafrost damage, pose further economic challenges for Russia. These climate-related damages can lower the country’s GDP and require costly infrastructure repairs. It is imperative for Russia to address these risks and invest in resilience measures.

Russia’s greenhouse gas emissions are among the highest in the world, contributing to global climate change. Transitioning to cleaner energy sources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions is essential for both mitigating climate change and complying with international agreements.

Economic Consequences Energy Transition
Lower GDP due to climate-related damages Shift towards renewable energy sources
Costly infrastructure repairs Investments in energy efficiency
Increased risks to key industries Reduced reliance on fossil fuels
Threats to energy security Development of clean technologies

A successful transition to a low-carbon economy will require substantial investments and policies that encourage innovation and sustainable development. By prioritizing renewable energy sources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Russia can build a resilient economy that is better equipped to face the challenges of climate change.

greenhouse gas emissions Moscow

Government Response and Policy Challenges

The Russian government’s approach to climate change has been met with various challenges and limitations. One of the key obstacles is the lack of adequate resources and budget constraints, which have hindered the government’s ability to respond effectively. Both federal and regional governments are facing the urgent need for proactive planning and long-term investments to address climate-related challenges.

However, a major hurdle lies in the lack of clarity and consistency in climate policy. With competing interests between regional governments, businesses, and federal authorities, achieving a unified stance becomes complex. This inconsistency has resulted in a fragmented approach to climate change legislation in Russia, making it challenging to develop and implement comprehensive policies.

Furthermore, Russia’s engagement with the Paris climate accord has been uneven. While the country has acknowledged the importance of addressing climate change, its provisions for emissions reduction and carbon pricing have been relatively limited. This discrepancy presents a significant policy challenge as it inhibits the implementation of effective climate change mitigation strategies.

Key Policy Challenges

  1. Limited resources and budget constraints
  2. Lack of clarity and consistency in climate policy
  3. Competing interests among regional governments, businesses, and federal authorities
  4. Inadequate provisions for emissions reduction and carbon pricing in the Paris climate accord

To address these policy challenges, it is imperative for the Russian government to prioritize climate change legislation and develop a coherent and integrated approach. This includes fostering greater collaboration among stakeholders, enhancing financial resources for climate initiatives, and aligning national policies with international agreements. By overcoming these challenges, Russia can play a crucial role in mitigating the impacts of climate change and fostering a sustainable future.

Policy Challenges Impact
Limited resources and budget constraints Constraints on the government’s ability to fund and implement climate change initiatives
Lack of clarity and consistency in climate policy Difficulty in establishing a unified and comprehensive approach to climate change
Competing interests among regional governments, businesses, and federal authorities Obstacles to developing and implementing cohesive climate change policies
Inadequate provisions for emissions reduction and carbon pricing in the Paris climate accord Impediments to effective climate change mitigation strategies

Russian climate policy and legislation

This image illustrates the complexities and challenges associated with Russian climate policy and legislation. It serves as a visual representation of the diverse factors influencing climate change response and the need for integrated and effective policies.

Public Perception and Awareness

When it comes to climate change awareness in Russia, there is a notable disparity between local environmental concerns and a broader understanding of the global implications. While issues such as air pollution and wildfires have captured public attention, the recognition of climate change as a pressing environmental issue remains limited.

Although a small percentage of Russians consider climate change the most significant concern for the country, officials and experts are increasingly acknowledging the economic consequences associated with it. There is a growing realization that climate change poses risks to various sectors, including the economy, agriculture, and infrastructure.

It is essential to bridge the gap between local environmental concerns and the wider understanding of climate change’s global impact. By raising awareness and fostering a sense of urgency, Russia can encourage greater public engagement and support for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.

One quote that captures the need for heightened climate change awareness in Russia comes from Alexander Rodin, a prominent environmental activist:

“The challenges posed by climate change require collective action and a shared understanding of its urgency. By increasing awareness about climate-related risks and strengthening public engagement, we can work towards a more sustainable future.”

The Importance of Public Opinion

Public opinion plays a crucial role in shaping policy decisions and driving change. A well-informed and engaged public can push for more robust climate change legislation and demand accountability from policymakers.

One way to foster climate change awareness is through education and information campaigns. By providing accessible and accurate information about climate change, its causes, and the potential impacts, individuals can better understand the urgency of taking action and support necessary policy initiatives.

Investments in climate change communication, public outreach programs, and grassroots initiatives can help cultivate a sense of responsibility and empower citizens to contribute to collective efforts in addressing climate change.

To illustrate the need for public opinion to drive climate action, here are three key points:

  1. Public awareness and engagement are crucial for successful climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.
  2. Public opinion can influence policy decisions and incentivize governments to prioritize climate action.
  3. Climate change awareness and public support are vital in holding governments and industries accountable for their environmental impact.

By increasing climate change awareness among the public and fostering a sense of urgency, Russia can effectively tackle the challenges posed by climate change and work towards a sustainable future.

Key Factors Affecting Climate Change Awareness in Russia

Factors Impact
Local environmental concerns Higher awareness due to immediate impact on daily lives
Limited understanding of global implications Lower appreciation of the broader impact of climate change
Public opinion and engagement Crucial for influencing policy decisions and driving change
Educational initiatives Important in raising awareness and fostering a sense of responsibility

climate change awareness Russia

Urban Heat Island and Air Pollution

In the bustling metropolitan city of Moscow, the urban heat island effect is becoming increasingly pronounced. This phenomenon refers to the higher temperatures experienced within the city compared to the surrounding areas. As Moscow’s population grows and urbanization expands, so does the heat island effect, exacerbating the challenges posed by climate change.

The combination of urbanization and the heat island effect has adverse effects on air quality, leading to significant air pollution in Moscow. Increased industrial activity, traffic emissions, and the concentration of buildings and infrastructure contribute to high levels of pollutants in the air. This air pollution not only poses risks to human health but also contributes to the overall climate crisis through the emission of greenhouse gases.

The Health Risks of Urban Heat Island and Air Pollution

The urban heat island effect, coupled with air pollution, poses significant health risks to the residents of Moscow. The high temperatures in urban areas can lead to heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke. Poor air quality, caused by pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), can contribute to respiratory problems, cardiovascular issues, and other related illnesses.

Furthermore, the heat island effect and air pollution have a detrimental impact on vulnerable populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing health conditions. It is crucial for authorities to address these risks through effective urban planning, sustainable transportation systems, and measures to reduce air pollution.

A Call for Sustainable Solutions

To combat the urban heat island effect and improve air quality, sustainable urban planning and green infrastructure initiatives are essential. Implementing strategies such as increasing green spaces, promoting urban forestry, and encouraging energy-efficient building designs can help mitigate the heat island effect by reducing the absorption and retention of heat in urban areas.

In addition, controlling and reducing air pollution in Moscow requires comprehensive measures, including stricter emissions regulations for industrial facilities and vehicles, promoting the use of clean energy sources, and investing in public transportation systems. Public awareness and education campaigns can play a crucial role in encouraging behavior changes that contribute to cleaner air and a more sustainable urban environment.

Summing Up

As Moscow continues to grapple with the urban heat island effect and air pollution, it is imperative for policymakers, city planners, and residents to prioritize sustainable solutions. By addressing these challenges head-on, Moscow can mitigate the health risks associated with higher temperatures and air pollution, while also contributing to global efforts in combating climate change.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Strategies

Russia plays a significant role in global greenhouse gas emissions, primarily due to its reliance on fossil fuels such as gas, oil, and coal. As one of the world’s largest emitters, it is crucial for Russia to implement effective mitigation strategies to combat climate change and reduce its carbon footprint.

While the country has set a goal to achieve net zero emissions by 2060, its current energy strategy still heavily depends on fossil fuels. To successfully mitigate climate change, Russia needs to transition to low-carbon sources of energy, such as renewable energy and nuclear power.

Investing in renewable energy is essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable development. With its vast territory, Russia has significant potential to harness renewable resources, including solar, wind, and hydroelectric energy. However, there are currently limited investments and plans for significant growth in renewable energy within the country.

Implementing comprehensive and ambitious policies that prioritize renewable energy development and energy efficiency will be crucial to achieving the emission reduction targets and mitigating the impacts of climate change in Moscow and throughout Russia.

“Transitioning to low-carbon sources of energy is crucial for reducing emissions and mitigating climate change.”

Promoting Renewable Energy

Expanding renewable energy infrastructure in Russia can offer multiple benefits. It can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diversify the energy mix, create job opportunities, and enhance energy security. Investing in renewable energy will also help position Russia as a global leader in clean energy technology and contribute to international efforts to combat climate change.

Energy Efficiency and Conservation

Improving energy efficiency is another vital aspect of climate change mitigation. Buildings and industries are major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, and implementing energy-efficient practices and technologies can significantly reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Encouraging energy conservation measures, promoting energy-efficient appliances, and implementing stricter energy efficiency standards are effective ways to achieve emissions reductions.

International Cooperation and Partnerships

Mitigating climate change requires global cooperation and partnerships. Russia can collaborate with international organizations, governments, and businesses to facilitate knowledge sharing, technology transfer, and financial support for renewable energy projects. Building strong international partnerships will not only accelerate the transition to clean energy but also enhance Russia’s capacity to address climate change challenges effectively.

Carbon Pricing and Regulations

Implementing carbon pricing mechanisms, such as emissions trading systems or carbon taxes, can provide incentives for industries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. By putting a price on carbon, businesses are encouraged to adopt cleaner technologies and invest in emissions reduction measures. Additionally, strengthening regulations and enforcing strict emission standards can ensure accountability and compliance with emission reduction targets.

By prioritizing renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, fostering international cooperation, and implementing effective carbon pricing and regulations, Russia can make significant strides in reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. Taking decisive actions now will not only contribute to a sustainable future for Moscow, but also for the entire planet.

Natural Environment Impacts and Biodiversity Loss

The ongoing effects of climate change in Russia are profoundly impacting the country’s natural environment, giving rise to significant changes in ecosystems and posing a threat to biodiversity. Rising temperatures, alterations in precipitation patterns, and the melting of ice are all contributing to the disruption of delicate ecological balances and the potential loss of various species. This had led to a range of challenges that demand urgent attention and action.

Rising Temperatures

One of the most noticeable effects of climate change is the increase in temperatures across Russia. As the mercury rises, it disrupts the natural habitats and behaviors of many species, affecting their survival and ability to reproduce. The escalation in heat has far-reaching consequences for the flora and fauna of the region, putting numerous species at risk.

Changes in Precipitation Patterns

The shifting climate patterns in Russia are altering precipitation levels, leading to irregular rainfall and droughts in certain areas. These changes can have devastating consequences for plants and animals that depend on specific moisture levels for their survival. Additionally, shifts in precipitation patterns can disrupt entire ecosystems, affecting not just individual species but the delicate web of interactions between organisms.

Melting Ice and Sea Level Rise

The melting of ice, particularly in the Arctic regions of Russia, is a direct consequence of climate change. It has significant implications for biodiversity and the environment. Coastal flooding, erosion, and the loss of sea ice and glaciers are causing extensive damage to ecosystems and habitats. Many species that rely on a stable and frozen environment for survival are now facing a growing threat to their existence.

Potential Species Loss

The combined impacts of rising temperatures, changes in precipitation, and melting ice pose a real risk of species loss across Russia. As habitats become inhospitable or disappear entirely, many plants and animals struggle to adapt or find suitable alternatives. This can lead to a decline in population numbers, a loss of biodiversity, and irreversible changes in ecosystems. Protecting and preserving the unique wildlife of Russia is essential for maintaining the balance of the natural world.

It is crucial that efforts are made to mitigate the impacts of climate change on Russia’s natural environment and prevent further species loss. Sustainable practices, conservation programs, and international collaboration are necessary to safeguard biodiversity and ensure the long-term resilience of ecosystems in the face of ongoing climate challenges.

Future Projections and Risks

As climate change continues to unfold, future projections indicate that Russia will face significant challenges in the coming years. Rising temperatures are expected to surpass the global average, leading to heightened risks and vulnerabilities across the country.

The Impact of Climate Change Projections

One of the key consequences of climate change projections in Russia is the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Heatwaves, droughts, and heavy rainfall will become more common, posing threats to human health, infrastructure, and natural ecosystems. These events can result in devastating consequences, including property damage, displacement of communities, and disruption of essential services.

The agricultural sector will also be heavily impacted. Changes in precipitation patterns and increased temperatures can lead to reduced crop yields and potential food scarcity. This poses risks to food security both in Russia and globally, as the country is a major exporter of agricultural products.

Furthermore, the combination of thawing permafrost and increased wildfires poses risks to infrastructure such as roads, buildings, and pipelines. Disruptions to transportation and energy supply chains can have far-reaching consequences for the economy and society as a whole.

Developing Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

In order to effectively address these future risks, Russia must prioritize the development of comprehensive adaptation and mitigation strategies. These strategies should focus on:

  • Enhancing infrastructure resilience against extreme weather events and permafrost thaw
  • Implementing sustainable agricultural practices to ensure food security
  • Investing in renewable energy sources and transitioning away from fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

By taking proactive measures to mitigate climate change and adapt to its impacts, Russia can minimize the risks and build a more sustainable and resilient future.

Risks Consequences
More frequent and intense extreme weather events Property damage, displacement of communities, disruption of essential services
Reduced crop yields and potential food scarcity Threats to food security in Russia and globally
Thawing permafrost and increased wildfires Risks to infrastructure and energy supply chains


Climate change is exerting a profound impact on Moscow, Russia, shaping its weather patterns, environment, economy, and society. The region is witnessing the consequences of rising temperatures, extreme weather events, thawing permafrost, and altered precipitation patterns. These far-reaching changes pose diverse challenges, including economic risks, concerns about food security, and the peril to biodiversity. Addressing these challenges necessitates a concerted effort to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and implement adaptation strategies, ensuring a sustainable future for Moscow in the face of climate change.

The warming temperatures experienced in Moscow are leading to unprecedented weather events, with records broken year after year. These events, such as forest fires and flash floods, disrupt communities and result in the release of carbon dioxide emissions. Thawing permafrost, covering around two-thirds of Russian territory, poses risks to infrastructure, including oil and gas pipelines, roads, and rail lines. The consequences of permafrost thawing are further magnified by the potential release of significant amounts of carbon, exacerbating global warming.

The impact on agriculture in Russia, particularly in the southern regions, is a cause for concern. Droughts and shifting precipitation patterns threaten arable land and wheat crops, which have global implications due to Russia’s major role as a wheat exporter. While some northern regions may offer expansion opportunities for arable land, the soil quality is inferior compared to the south. Additionally, the cultivation of carbon-rich soils in the north could contribute to further global warming.

Climate change presents economic risks for Russia, given its heavy reliance on hydrocarbon production. The country’s high greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with climate-related damages such as droughts, floods, and permafrost damage, could lead to reduced GDP and costly infrastructure repairs. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate change, a transition to renewable energy sources is imperative. However, currently, there is limited investment and plans for substantial growth in renewable energy in Russia.


How is climate change impacting Moscow, Russia?

Climate change is leading to warming temperatures, extreme weather events, and changes in precipitation patterns in Moscow, Russia. These changes have wide-ranging implications for the environment, economy, and society of the city.

What are the potential risks of warming temperatures and extreme weather events in Moscow?

Warming temperatures and extreme weather events can lead to increased risks of heatwaves, droughts, floods, and storms in Moscow. These events can cause damage to infrastructure, disrupt daily life, and pose health risks to residents.

What are the risks associated with thawing permafrost in Moscow?

Thawing permafrost in Moscow poses risks to infrastructure such as roads, rail lines, and pipelines. It can lead to increased freeze-thaw cycles that damage urban infrastructure and contribute to environmental disasters like oil spills. Thawing permafrost also has the potential to release large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming.

How is climate change affecting agriculture and food security in Moscow?

Climate change is leading to changes in precipitation patterns and droughts, which can reduce arable land and threaten crop production in Moscow. This poses risks to food security not only for the city but also for the global market, as Russia is a major exporter of wheat.

What are the economic consequences of climate change in Moscow?

Climate change can have significant economic risks for Moscow, including damage to infrastructure, costly repairs, and potential decreases in GDP. The city’s reliance on hydrocarbon production also leaves it vulnerable as global demand shifts to low-carbon energy sources.

How is the Russian government responding to climate change?

The Russian government’s response to climate change has been hindered by limited resources and budget constraints. However, there is growing recognition among officials and experts about the economic consequences of climate change, leading to a need for proactive planning and long-term investments to address climate-related challenges.

Is there public awareness and activism regarding climate change in Moscow?

While there is growing recognition of local environmental issues such as air pollution and wildfires, there is limited broader awareness and activism regarding the global implications of climate change in Moscow. There is a small percentage of Russians who view climate change as the most important environmental issue facing the country.

How does air pollution contribute to climate change in Moscow?

Air pollution is a major environmental issue in Moscow. The combination of the urban heat island effect and pollution contributes to higher temperatures within the city and the release of greenhouse gases. This poses health risks to residents and further contributes to climate change.

What are Russia’s greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies?

Russia is one of the world’s largest emitters of greenhouse gases, primarily from fossil fuels. The country has set a goal to reach net zero emissions by 2060 but currently relies heavily on fossil fuels. Transitioning to low-carbon sources of energy, such as renewable energy and nuclear power, is crucial for reducing emissions and mitigating climate change.

How is climate change impacting the natural environment and biodiversity in Russia?

Climate change is causing significant impacts on Russia’s natural environment, leading to changes in ecosystems and potential species loss. Rising temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and melting ice are affecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, particularly in Arctic regions of the country.

What are the future projections and risks of climate change in Moscow?

Future projections indicate that temperatures will continue to rise in Moscow, with the increase expected to be higher than the global average. This will lead to more frequent extreme weather events, heatwaves, and changes in precipitation patterns. The impacts on agriculture, infrastructure, and biodiversity will persist and pose significant risks to the city.

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